NAS Installation - Synology DSM 6.1 (Hermes)

Hua Hin cloud server 2017 on Synology DS716+.


  • Intel Celeron N3160 quad core
  • 2 HGST Deskstar NAS 6TB HDD
  • 2 GB RAM


  1. Find the DS through
  2. Create a volume in Storage Manager
  3. Configure Network settings in Control Panel. Select the 2nd LAN and click Create Bond.
  4. Enable user home service in Control Panel –> User –> Advanced.
  5. Set disk full warning setting in Control Panel –> Notification –> Advanced –> Internal Storage –> Volume Full.
  6. Enable the widgets you want to use on your home screen.
  7. To setup SSL, import server.key, domain.crt, and domain.intermediate.crt through Control Panel –> Security –> Certificate –> Add. Right click on the new certificate, “Edit” to make it default, “Configure” to assign it to services. Detailed instructions see Secure your Synology NAS, install a SSL certificate and How to Move or Copy an SSL Certificate from one Server to Another.
  8. Add Two-factor-authentication to your admin user. Select Options → Personal on the top right of the DSM window. Settings are saved in

DDNS over Namecheap

  1. Add the host to be accessed with DDNS to your domain's Advanced DNS –> Dynamic DNS in Namecheap
  2. Make sure you installed php-curl and php-xml in your Apache 2.4 and PHP 7/8 installation
  3. Add the following script to your webserver:
    try {
            $url = ''.$_GET['host'].'&domain='.$_GET['domain'].'&password='.$_GET['password'].'&ip='.$_GET['ip'];
            // with allow_url_fopen enabled
            $output = file_get_contents($url);
            // with curl
            //$req = curl_init();
            //curl_setopt($req, CURLOPT_URL, $url);
            //curl_setopt($req, CURLOPT_RETURNTRANSFER, true);
            //curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_HTTPHEADER, array('Content-type: text/xml'));
            //$output = curl_exec($req);
            $xml = new SimpleXMLElement(trim(str_replace("encoding=\"utf-16\"","",$output)));
            if ($xml->ErrCount > 0) {
                    $error = $xml->errors[0]->Err1;
                    if (strcmp($error, "Domain name not found") === 0) {
                            echo "nohost";
                    } elseif (strcmp($error, "Passwords do not match") === 0) {
                            echo "badauth";
                    } elseif (strcmp($error, "Passwords is empty") === 0) {
                            echo "badauth";
                    } elseif (strcmp($error, "No Records updated. A record not Found;") === 0) {
                            echo "nohost";
                    } else {
                       echo "911 [".$error."]";
            } else {
                    echo "good";
    } catch (Exception $e) {
        echo "911 [".$e->getMessage()."]";
  4. Make sure the DDNS update call is allowed by your webserver. For apache, add this to the conf:
    Require expr "%{QUERY_STRING} =~ /your Namecheap DDNS password/" # allow the DDNS updater to run from the changed ip address
    Require forward-dns host.domain.tld # allow access from the DDNS domain name after updating the ip address
  5. Create a custom DDNS updater in Synology DSM with the following Query URL:


If you are running a Synology NAS to handle cloud and mail, but another webserver to handle https sites, you will end up with some certificate issues. I solve those by updating the certificate on the web server and then copy the renewed certificate over to the NAS.

  1. Check the path to rsync:
    which rsync
  2. First, allow rsync to be executed as root on both machines. Add the following line to file 'rsync' under 'sudoers.d':
    user ALL=(root) NOPASSWD:/path/to/rsync
  3. As a user on your NAS you can suck the data from your source server like this:
    sudo rsync -aPLe 'ssh -l user -i /volume1/homes/user/.ssh/id_rsa' --rsync-path='sudo rsync' pandora:/etc/letsencrypt/live/cloud.domain.tld/fullchain.pem /usr/syno/etc/certificate/_archive/<dir>/cert.pem
  4. You can find the directory where your default certificate is stored in on your NAS with the following command:
    cat /usr/syno/etc/certificate/_archive/DEFAULT
  5. Copy the rsync commands into a batch file on the NAS and add the batch file to the task scheduler:
    sudo -u bco sh /volume1/homes/bco/batch/copycert
  6. Content of “copycert”:
    # Copy certificates from web server to NAS
    #  you must add user to be able to run cksum with sudo without password on the remote machine
    # (c) 2019-08-06, 2019-11-27, 2020-02-21, Bernard Condrau
    # CERTDIR must be hardcoded and is different in every server instance
    #  see
    #  if you used the normal method the certificate will be installed in the "system/default" directory
    #  if you used the alternative method it is copied to an unknown path, you can find it in file "_archive/DEFAULT"
    # CERTDIR="system/default"
    # compare cksums first to decide whether certificates need to be copied
    REM_CERT=$(ssh -i /volume1/homes/bco/.ssh/id_rsa bco@pandora sudo cksum /etc/letsencrypt/live/ | cut -d' ' -f 1)
    REM_FULL=$(ssh -i /volume1/homes/bco/.ssh/id_rsa bco@pandora sudo cksum /etc/letsencrypt/live/ | cut -d' ' -f 1)
    REM_PRIV=$(ssh -i /volume1/homes/bco/.ssh/id_rsa bco@pandora sudo cksum /etc/letsencrypt/live/ | cut -d' ' -f 1)
    LOC_CERT=$(cksum /usr/syno/etc/certificate/$CERTDIR/cert.pem | cut -d' ' -f 1)
    LOC_FULL=$(cksum /usr/syno/etc/certificate/$CERTDIR/fullchain.pem | cut -d' ' -f 1)
    LOC_PRIV=$(cksum /usr/syno/etc/certificate/$CERTDIR/privkey.pem | cut -d' ' -f 1)
    if [[ $LOC_CERT -ne $REM_CERT ]] || [[ $LOC_FULL -ne $REM_FULL ]] || [[ $LOC_PRIV -ne $REM_PRIV ]]; then
        # copy certificates from web server
        sudo rsync -aPLe 'ssh -l bco -i /volume1/homes/bco/.ssh/id_rsa' --rsync-path='sudo rsync' pandora:/etc/letsencrypt/live/ $FULLCERTDIR/cert.pem
        sudo rsync -aPLe 'ssh -l bco -i /volume1/homes/bco/.ssh/id_rsa' --rsync-path='sudo rsync' pandora:/etc/letsencrypt/live/ $FULLCERTDIR/fullchain.pem
        sudo rsync -aPLe 'ssh -l bco -i /volume1/homes/bco/.ssh/id_rsa' --rsync-path='sudo rsync' pandora:/etc/letsencrypt/live/ $FULLCERTDIR/privkey.pem
        # find all subdirectories containing cert.pem files
        PEMFILES=$(find $CERTROOTDIR -name cert.pem)
        if [ ! -z "$PEMFILES" ]; then
            for DIR in $PEMFILES; do
                # replace the certificates, but never the ones in the _archive folders as those are all the unique certificates on the system.
                if [[ $DIR != *"/_archive/"* ]]; then
                    rsync -avh "$FULLCERTDIR/" "$(dirname $DIR)/"
        # reload
        /usr/syno/sbin/synoservicectl --reload nginx
        # update and restart all installed packages
        PEMFILES=$(find $PACKAGECERTROOTDIR -name cert.pem)
        if [ ! -z "$PEMFILES" ]; then
            for DIR in $PEMFILES; do
                #active directory has it's own certificate so we do not update that package
                if [[ $DIR != *"/ActiveDirectoryServer/"* ]]; then
                    rsync -avh "$FULLCERTDIR/" "$(dirname $DIR)/"
                    /usr/syno/bin/synopkg restart $(echo $DIR | awk -F/ '{print $6}')
        echo "certificates updated"
        echo "nothing to update"
    exit 0
  7. You must add the following line at the end of the sudoers file with 'visudo' for the above script to work
    user  ALL=(ALL)  NOPASSWD: /usr/bin/cksum

Shared Folders

Change hostname

  • Change Server Name in Control Panel –> Network –> General
  • Update:
    sudo vim /etc/synoinfo.conf
  • Update:
    sudo vim /etc/sysconfig/network

MailPlus Server


  1. Install Synology Contacts
  2. Click the + behind PERSONAL ADDRESS BOOK and select “Import Address Book” to import your address book from an existing CardDAV server or from a vCard file (extension .vcf) and name it something like user_CardDAV.
  3. If you want to keep an archive of all your contacts before deleting unused contacts, import the same address book again into PERSONAL or GROUP ADDRESS BOOK and name it something like archive_user_CardDAV. Do not sync this address book, keep it as archived backup, and it can be exported to a vCard file later if required.
  4. Click the 3 dots to the right of your new address book and check the URL which you need for setting up DAVx5 below, the URL you need is the one under iOS (not CardDAV client!)
  5. Install DAVx5. Add a new account as “Login with URL and user name”, then enter the CardDAV base URL taken from the web interface explained in the step before. It should look like this:<user>/ # local network<user>/ # internet


  1. Install Synology Calendar
  2. Click the v behind your calendar in the right pane, select CalDAV Account, and check the URL which you need for setting up DAVx5 below, the URL you need is the one under macOS / iOS (not Thunderbird!)
  3. Install DAVx5. Add a new account as “Login with URL and user name”, name it with your main email address, then enter the CalDAV base URL taken from the web interface explained in the step before. It should look like this:<user>/ # local network
      - Make sure you select the correct calendar as default for new appointments on your Android device<user>/ # internet


  • Find all Synology package icons in /var/cache/pkglist.tmp/icon/AVAIL/SYNO

Replace Harddisks


  1. Shut down the NAS and replace the first disk. Numbering of disks is from left to right.
  2. Boot the NAS and add the new disk to the Raid. It takes about 20 hours to rebuild the Raid.
  3. Repeat steps 1 and 2 for the other disk.
  4. Expand the Raid volume if the new disks are higher capacity than the replaced ones.

Command Line

Since DSM 6 the Synology NAS features a linux kernel, so Raid management can also be done on the command line. Since the Diskstation 212+ and 213+ do not support HGST Deskstar 10TB drives, I started to look into this to find a way how to make it work. Here is what I found:

  1. I replaced a failed HGST 6TB with a new HGST 10TB and rebuilt the Raid through the DSM GUI.
  2. I then replaced the other HGST 6TB with a new HGST 10TB and rebuilt the Raid through the DSM GUI.
  3. Extending the Raid volume through the GUI did not work.
  4. After rebooting the NAS the data volume Raid degraded. Interestingly, the other 2 Raids (boot, swap) did not degrade
    # cat /proc/mdstat
    Personalities : [linear] [raid0] [raid1] [raid10] [raid6] [raid5] [raid4]
    md2 : active raid1 sda3[2]
          5855800416 blocks super 1.2 [2/1] [U_]
    md1 : active raid1 sda2[0] sdb2[1]
          2097088 blocks [2/2] [UU]
    md0 : active raid1 sda1[0] sdb1[1]
          2490176 blocks [2/2] [UU]
    unused devices: <none>
  5. I then rebuilt the Raid from the command line and created a conf file
    # mdadm --add /dev/md2 /dev/sdb3
    # mdadm --detail --scan > /etc/mdadm.conf
  6. I now can boot the NAS without problems.

Remove IPKG/Optware

  1. comment out every reference to optware in /etc/rc.local
  2. restart DS
  3. check that optware has not been loaded, e.g. /opt is empty, and sudo will work without change of path
  4. rm -R /opt
  5. rm -R /volume1/opt or rm -R /volume1/@optware (depends on where you installed your IPKG)
  6. delete every reference to optware in /etc/rc.local
  7. delete /etc/rc.optware

SSH Access

  1. Copy the private key into .ssh/authorized_keys
  2. Make sure the homes/user directory, .ssh, and the authorized_keys file are accessible by the owner/user only
    cd /var/services/homes/user
    sudo chmod 700 .
    sudo chmod 700 .ssh
    sudo chmod 600 authorized_keys


  1. Enable Rsync in Control Panel –> File Services. Do not enable rsync account.
  2. Give user r/w permissions for shared folder “homes”
  3. Give user rsync application permission
  4. Make sure user has SSH access to the box with key file
  5. rsync command example:
    rsync -av -e ssh sample.file user@machine:/var/services/homes/user/

BackupPC Integration

Encrypted Shared Folders with auto-mount


Services and Packet Installation